12.1. Basic Commands
The first commands a novice learns
The basic file "list" command. It is all too easy
to underestimate the power of this humble command. For
example, using the -R, recursive option,
ls provides a tree-like listing of
a directory structure. Other interesting options are
-S, sort listing by file size,
-t, sort by file modification time, and
-i, show file inodes (see Example 12-4).
Example 12-1. Using ls to create a table of contents
for burning a CDR disk
# Script to automate burning a CDR.
SPEED=2 # May use higher speed if your hardware supports it.
DEFAULTDIR=/opt # This is the directory containing the data to be burned.
# Make sure it exists.
# Uses Joerg Schilling's "cdrecord" package.
# If this script invoked as an ordinary user, need to suid cdrecord
#+ (chmod u+s /usr/bin/cdrecord, as root).
if [ -z "$1" ]
# Default directory, if not specified on command line.
# Create a "table of contents" file.
ls -lRF $IMAGE_DIRECTORY > $IMAGE_DIRECTORY/$CONTENTSFILE
# The "l" option gives a "long" file listing.
# The "R" option makes the listing recursive.
# The "F" option marks the file types (directories get a trailing /).
echo "Creating table of contents."
# Create an image file preparatory to burning it onto the CDR.
mkisofs -r -o $IMAGFILE $IMAGE_DIRECTORY
echo "Creating ISO9660 file system image ($IMAGEFILE)."
# Burn the CDR.
cdrecord -v -isosize speed=$SPEED dev=0,0 $IMAGEFILE
echo "Burning the disk."
echo "Please be patient, this will take a while."
- cat, tac
cat, an acronym for
lists a file to stdout. When
combined with redirection (> or
>>), it is commonly used to concatenate
The -n option to cat
inserts consecutive numbers before all lines of the
target file(s). The -b option numbers
only the non-blank lines. The -v option
echoes nonprintable characters, using ^
notation. The -s option squeezes multiple
consecutive blank lines into a single blank line.
# Uses of 'cat'
cat filename # Lists the file.
cat file.1 file.2 file.3 > file.123 # Combines three files into one.
See also Example 12-24 and Example 12-20.
tac, is the inverse of
cat, listing a file backwards from its end.
reverses each line of a file, and outputs to
stdout. This is not the same effect
as tac, as it preserves the order of
the lines, but flips each one around.
bash$ cat file1.txt
This is line 1.
This is line 2.
bash$ tac file1.txt
This is line 2.
This is line 1.
bash$ rev file1.txt
.1 enil si sihT
.2 enil si sihT
This is the file copy command. cp file1
file2 copies file1
to file2, overwriting
file2 if it already exists (see Example 12-6).
Particularly useful are the -a
archive flag (for copying an entire directory tree)
and the -r and -R
This is the file move command. It
is equivalent to a combination of cp
and rm. It may be used to move multiple
files to a directory, or even to rename a directory. For
some examples of using mv in a script,
see Example 9-17 and Example A-3.
When used in a non-interactive script,
mv takes the -f
(force) option to bypass user
When a directory is moved to a preexisting directory,
it becomes a subdirectory of the destination directory.
bash$ mv source_directory target_directory
bash$ ls -lF target_directory
drwxrwxr-x 2 bozo bozo 1024 May 28 19:20 source_directory/
Delete (remove) a file or files. The -f
option forces removal of even readonly files, and is useful
for bypassing user input in a script.
The rm command will, by
itself, fail to remove filenames beginning with a
bash$ rm -badname
rm: invalid option -- b
Try `rm --help' for more information.
The way to accomplish this is to preface the filename to be
removed with a dot-slash .
When used with the recursive flag
-r, this command removes files all
the way down the directory tree from the current
Remove directory. The directory must be empty of
all files, including invisible
for this command to succeed.
Make directory, creates a new directory. For example,
mkdir -p project/programs/December
creates the named directory. The
-p option automatically creates
any necessary parent directories.
Changes the attributes of an existing file (see Example 11-11).
chmod +x filename
# Makes "filename" executable for all users.
chmod u+s filename
# Sets "suid" bit on "filename" permissions.
# An ordinary user may execute "filename" with same privileges as the file's owner.
# (This does not apply to shell scripts.)
chmod 644 filename
# Makes "filename" readable/writable to owner, readable to
# (octal mode).
chmod 1777 directory-name
# Gives everyone read, write, and execute permission in directory,
# however also sets the "sticky bit".
# This means that only the owner of the directory,
# owner of the file, and, of course, root
# can delete any particular file in that directory.
Change file attributes. This has the same effect
as chmod above, but with a
different invocation syntax, and it works only on an
Creates links to pre-existings files. A "link"
is a reference to a file, an alternate name for it.
The ln command permits referencing
the linked file by more than one name and is a superior
alternative to aliasing (see Example 4-6).
The ln creates only a reference, a
pointer to the file only a few bytes in size.
The ln command is most often used
with the -s, symbolic or
"soft" link flag. An advantage of using the
-s flag is that it permits linking across
The syntax of the command is a bit tricky. For example:
ln -s oldfile newfile links the
previously existing oldfile to the
newly created link, newfile.
If a file named newfile has
previously existed, it will be deleted when the filename
newfile is preempted as the name for a
Links give the ability to invoke a script (or any other type
of executable) with multiple names, and having that script
behave according to how it was invoked.
Example 12-2. Hello or Good-bye
# hello.sh: Saying "hello" or "goodbye"
#+ depending on how script is invoked.
# Make a link in current working directory ($PWD) to this script:
# ln -s hello.sh goodbye
# Now, try invoking this script both ways:
if [ $0 = "./goodbye" ]
# Some other goodbye-type commands, as appropriate.
# Some other hello-type commands, as appropriate.
- man, info
These commands access the manual and information pages on
system commands and installed utilities. When available, the
info pages usually contain a more detailed
description than do the man pages.