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Q.7 Coding Systems
Users of various languages have established many more-or-less standard coding systems for representing them. Emacs does not use these coding systems internally; instead, it converts from various coding systems to its own system when reading data, and converts the internal coding system to other coding systems when writing data. Conversion is possible in reading or writing files, in sending or receiving from the terminal, and in exchanging data with subprocesses.
Emacs assigns a name to each coding system. Most coding systems are
used for one language, and the name of the coding system starts with the
language name. Some coding systems are used for several languages;
their names usually start with `iso'. There are also special
A special class of coding systems, collectively known as codepages, is designed to support text encoded by MS-Windows and MS-DOS software. To use any of these systems, you need to create it with M-x codepage-setup. See section AH.6 International Support on MS-DOS. After creating the coding system for the codepage, you can use it as any other coding system. For example, to visit a file encoded in codepage 850, type C-x RET c cp850 RET C-x C-f filename RET.
In addition to converting various representations of non-ASCII characters, a coding system can perform end-of-line conversion. Emacs handles three different conventions for how to separate lines in a file: newline, carriage-return linefeed, and just carriage-return.
The command C-h C (
To display a list of all the supported coding systems, type M-x list-coding-systems. The list gives information about each coding system, including the letter that stands for it in the mode line (see section B.3 The Mode Line).
Each of the coding systems that appear in this list--except for
Each of the listed coding systems has three variants which specify exactly what to do for end-of-line conversion:
These variant coding systems are omitted from the
The coding system
In contrast, the coding system
The easiest way to edit a file with no conversion of any kind is with
the M-x find-file-literally command. This uses
The coding system
This document was generated on April 2, 2002 using texi2html
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