|Internet Business Consultant|
|Home||Blog||Bio||Projects||Contact||Latest Blog (new site): How to Get to Genius|
P. Frames and X Windows
When using the X Window System, you can create multiple windows at the X level in a single Emacs session. Each X window that belongs to Emacs displays a frame which can contain one or several Emacs windows. A frame initially contains a single general-purpose Emacs window which you can subdivide vertically or horizontally into smaller windows. A frame normally contains its own echo area and minibuffer, but you can make frames that don't have these--they use the echo area and minibuffer of another frame.
Editing you do in one frame also affects the other frames. For instance, if you put text in the kill ring in one frame, you can yank it in another frame. If you exit Emacs through C-x C-c in one frame, it terminates all the frames. To delete just one frame, use C-x 5 0 (that is zero, not o).
To avoid confusion, we reserve the word "window" for the subdivisions that Emacs implements, and never use it to refer to a frame.
Emacs compiled for MS-DOS emulates some aspects of the window system so that you can use many of the features described in this chapter. See section AH.1 Keyboard and Mouse on MS-DOS, for more information.
P.1 Mouse Commands for Editing
The mouse commands for selecting and copying a region are mostly
compatible with the
If you select a region with any of these mouse commands, and then immediately afterward type the DELETE function key, it deletes the region that you selected. The BACKSPACE function key and the ASCII character DEL do not do this; if you type any other key in between the mouse command and DELETE, it does not do this.
The simplest way to kill text with the mouse is to press Mouse-1 at one end, then press Mouse-3 twice at the other end. See section H.7 Deletion and Killing. To copy the text into the kill ring without deleting it from the buffer, press Mouse-3 just once--or just drag across the text with Mouse-1. Then you can copy it elsewhere by yanking it.
To yank the killed or copied text somewhere else, move the mouse there
and press Mouse-2. See section H.8 Yanking. However, if
To copy text to another X window, kill it or save it in the kill ring. Under X, this also sets the primary selection. Then use the "paste" or "yank" command of the program operating the other window to insert the text from the selection.
To copy text from another X window, use the "cut" or "copy" command of the program operating the other window, to select the text you want. Then yank it in Emacs with C-y or Mouse-2.
The standard coding system for X selections is
These cutting and pasting commands also work on MS-Windows.
When Emacs puts text into the kill ring, or rotates text to the front
of the kill ring, it sets the primary selection in the X server.
This is how other X clients can access the text. Emacs also stores the
text in the cut buffer, but only if the text is short enough
(the value of
The commands to yank the first entry in the kill ring actually check first for a primary selection in another program; after that, they check for text in the cut buffer. If neither of those sources provides text to yank, the kill ring contents are used.
P.2 Secondary Selection
The secondary selection is another way of selecting text using X. It does not use point or the mark, so you can use it to kill text without setting point or the mark.
Double or triple clicking of M-Mouse-1 operates on words and lines, much like Mouse-1.
P.3 Using the Clipboard
As well as the primary and secondary selection types, X supports a clipboard selection type which is used by some applications, particularly under OpenWindows and Gnome.
The command M-x menu-bar-enable-clipboard makes the
P.4 Following References with the Mouse
Some Emacs buffers display lists of various sorts. These include lists of files, of buffers, of possible completions, of matches for a pattern, and so on.
Since yanking text into these buffers is not very useful, most of them define Mouse-2 specially, as a command to use or view the item you click on.
For example, if you click Mouse-2 on a file name in a Dired buffer, you visit that file. If you click Mouse-2 on an error message in the `*Compilation*' buffer, you go to the source code for that error message. If you click Mouse-2 on a completion in the `*Completions*' buffer, you choose that completion.
You can usually tell when Mouse-2 has this special sort of meaning because the sensitive text highlights when you move the mouse over it.
P.5 Mouse Clicks for Menus
Mouse clicks modified with the CTRL and SHIFT keys bring up menus.
P.6 Mode Line Mouse Commands
You can use mouse clicks on window mode lines to select and manipulate windows.
C-Mouse-2 on a scroll bar splits the corresponding window vertically, unless you are using an X toolkit's implementation of scroll bars. See section O.2 Splitting Windows.
The commands above apply to areas of the mode line which do not have special mouse bindings of their own. Some areas, such as the buffer name and the major mode name, have their own special mouse bindings. Emacs displays information about these bindings when you hold the mouse over such a place (see section P.18 Tooltips (or "Balloon Help")).
P.7 Creating Frames
The prefix key C-x 5 is analogous to C-x 4, with parallel subcommands. The difference is that C-x 5 commands create a new frame rather than just a new window in the selected frame (see section O.4 Displaying in Another Window). If an existing visible or iconified frame already displays the requested material, these commands use the existing frame, after raising or deiconifying as necessary.
The various C-x 5 commands differ in how they find or create the buffer to select:
You can control the appearance of new frames you create by setting the
frame parameters in
The easiest way to specify the principal font for all your Emacs
frames is with an X resource (see section AE.7 Font Specification Options), but you can also do it by
Here's a similar example for specifying a foreground color:
P.8 Frame Commands
The following commands let you create, delete and operate on frames:
P.9 Making and Using a Speedbar Frame
An Emacs frame can have a speedbar, which is a vertical window that serves as a scrollable menu of files you could visit and tags within those files. To create a speedbar, type M-x speedbar; this creates a speedbar window for the selected frame. From then on, you can click on a file name in the speedbar to visit that file in the corresponding Emacs frame, or click on a tag name to jump to that tag in the Emacs frame.
Initially the speedbar lists the immediate contents of the current directory, one file per line. Each line also has a box, `[+]' or `<+>', that you can click on with Mouse-2 to "open up" the contents of that item. If the line names a directory, opening it adds the contents of that directory to the speedbar display, underneath the directory's own line. If the line lists an ordinary file, opening it up adds a list of the tags in that file to the speedbar display. When a file is opened up, the `[+]' changes to `[-]'; you can click on that box to "close up" that file (hide its contents).
Some major modes, including Rmail mode, Info, and GUD, have specialized ways of putting useful items into the speedbar for you to select. For example, in Rmail mode, the speedbar shows a list of Rmail files, and lets you move the current message to another Rmail file by clicking on its `<M>' box.
A speedbar belongs to one Emacs frame, and always operates on that frame. If you use multiple frames, you can make a speedbar for some or all of the frames; type M-x speedbar in any given frame to make a speedbar for it.
P.10 Multiple Displays
A single Emacs can talk to more than one X display. Initially, Emacs
uses just one display--the one specified with the
A single X server can handle more than one screen. When you open frames on two screens belonging to one server, Emacs knows they share a single keyboard, and it treats all the commands arriving from these screens as a single stream of input.
When you open frames on different X servers, Emacs makes a separate input stream for each server. This way, two users can type simultaneously on the two displays, and Emacs will not garble their input. Each server also has its own selected frame. The commands you enter with a particular X server apply to that server's selected frame.
Despite these features, people using the same Emacs job from different displays can still interfere with each other if they are not careful. For example, if any one types C-x C-c, that exits the Emacs job for all of them!
P.11 Special Buffer Frames
You can make certain chosen buffers, for which Emacs normally creates
a second window when you have just one window, appear in special frames
of their own. To do this, set the variable
For example, if you set the variable this way,
then completion lists,
More generally, you can set
For those who know Lisp, an element of
where function is a symbol. Then the frame is constructed by calling function; its first argument is the buffer, and its remaining arguments are args.
An analogous feature lets you specify buffers which should be
displayed in the selected window. See section O.5 Forcing Display in the Same Window. The
same-window feature takes precedence over the special-frame feature;
therefore, if you add a buffer name to
P.12 Setting Frame Parameters
This section describes commands for altering the display style and window management behavior of the selected frame.
In Emacs versions that use an X toolkit, the color-setting and font-setting functions don't affect menus and the menu bar, since they are displayed by their own widget classes. To change the appearance of the menus and menu bar, you must use X resources (see section AE.13 X Resources). See section AE.8 Window Color Options, regarding colors. See section AE.7 Font Specification Options, regarding choice of font.
Colors, fonts, and other attributes of the frame's display can also
be customized by setting frame parameters in the variable
P.13 Scroll Bars
When using X, Emacs normally makes a scroll bar at the left of each Emacs window.(3) The scroll bar runs the height of the window, and shows a moving rectangular inner box which represents the portion of the buffer currently displayed. The entire height of the scroll bar represents the entire length of the buffer.
You can use Mouse-2 (normally, the middle button) in the scroll bar to move or drag the inner box up and down. If you move it to the top of the scroll bar, you see the top of the buffer. If you move it to the bottom of the scroll bar, you see the bottom of the buffer.
The left and right buttons in the scroll bar scroll by controlled increments. Mouse-1 (normally, the left button) moves the line at the level where you click up to the top of the window. Mouse-3 (normally, the right button) moves the line at the top of the window down to the level where you click. By clicking repeatedly in the same place, you can scroll by the same distance over and over.
If you are using Emacs's own implementation of scroll bars, as opposed to scroll bars from an X toolkit, you can also click C-Mouse-2 in the scroll bar to split a window vertically. The split occurs on the line where you click.
You can enable or disable Scroll Bar mode with the command M-x
scroll-bar-mode. With no argument, it toggles the use of scroll bars.
With an argument, it turns use of scroll bars on if and only if the
argument is positive. This command applies to all frames, including
frames yet to be created. Customize the option
P.14 Scrolling With "Wheeled" Mice
Some mice have a "wheel" instead of a third button. You can
usually click the wheel to act as either Mouse-2 or
Mouse-3, depending on the setup. You can also use the wheel to
scroll windows instead of using the scroll bar or keyboard commands.
To do so, turn on Mouse Wheel global minor mode with the command
M-x mouse-wheel-mode or by customizing the option
P.15 Menu Bars
You can turn display of menu bars on or off with M-x
menu-bar-mode or by customizing the option
Expert users often turn off the menu bar, especially on text-only terminals, where this makes one additional line available for text. If the menu bar is off, you can still pop up a menu of its contents with C-Mouse-3 on a display which supports pop-up menus. See section P.5 Mouse Clicks for Menus.
See section B.4 The Menu Bar, for information on how to invoke commands with the menu bar.
P.16 Tool Bars
The tool bar is a line (or multiple lines) of icons at the top of the Emacs window. You can click on these icons with the mouse to do various jobs.
The global tool bar contains general commands. Some major modes define their own tool bars to replace it. A few "special" modes that are not designed for ordinary editing remove some items from the global tool bar.
Tool bars work only on a graphical display. The tool bar uses colored XPM icons if Emacs was built with XPM support. Otherwise, the tool bar uses monochrome icons (PBM or XBM format).
You can turn display of tool bars on or off with M-x tool-bar-mode.
P.17 Using Dialog Boxes
A dialog box is a special kind of menu for asking you a yes-or-no question or some other special question. Many Emacs commands use a dialog box to ask a yes-or-no question, if you used the mouse to invoke the command to begin with.
You can customize the option
P.18 Tooltips (or "Balloon Help")
Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current mouse position, typically over text--including the mode line--which can be activated with the mouse or other keys. (This facility is sometimes known as balloon help.) Help text may be available for menu items too.
To use tooltips, enable Tooltip mode with the command M-x
tooltip-mode. The customization group
As of Emacs 21.1, tooltips are not supported on MS-Windows. So help text always appears in the echo area.
P.19 Mouse Avoidance
Mouse Avoidance mode keeps the window system mouse pointer away from
point, to avoid obscuring text. Whenever it moves the mouse, it also
raises the frame. To use Mouse Avoidance mode, customize the option
P.20 Non-Window Terminals
If your terminal does not have a window system that Emacs supports, then it can display only one Emacs frame at a time. However, you can still create multiple Emacs frames, and switch between them. Switching frames on these terminals is much like switching between different window configurations.
Use C-x 5 2 to create a new frame and switch to it; use C-x 5 o to cycle through the existing frames; use C-x 5 0 to delete the current frame.
Each frame has a number to distinguish it. If your terminal can display only one frame at a time, the selected frame's number n appears near the beginning of the mode line, in the form `Fn'.
`Fn' is actually the frame's name. You can also specify a different name if you wish, and you can select a frame by its name. Use the command M-x set-frame-name RET name RET to specify a new name for the selected frame, and use M-x select-frame-by-name RET name RET to select a frame according to its name. The name you specify appears in the mode line when the frame is selected.
P.21 Using a Mouse in Terminal Emulators
Some terminal emulators under X support mouse clicks in the terminal
window. In a terminal emulator which is compatible with
This document was generated on April 2, 2002 using texi2html
Services: Search Engine Optimization
|Electric Speed: Search Engine Optimization Information|