|Internet Business Consultant|
|Home||Blog||Bio||Projects||Contact||Latest Blog (new site): How to Get to Genius|
K. Searching and Replacement
Like other editors, Emacs has commands for searching for occurrences of a string. The principal search command is unusual in that it is incremental; it begins to search before you have finished typing the search string. There are also nonincremental search commands more like those of other editors.
Besides the usual
K.1 Incremental Search
An incremental search begins searching as soon as you type the first character of the search string. As you type in the search string, Emacs shows you where the string (as you have typed it so far) would be found. When you have typed enough characters to identify the place you want, you can stop. Depending on what you plan to do next, you may or may not need to terminate the search explicitly with RET.
C-s starts a forward incremental search. It reads characters from the keyboard, and moves point past the next occurrence of those characters. If you type C-s and then F, that puts the cursor after the first `F' (the first following the starting point, since this is a forward search). Then if you type an O, you will see the cursor move just after the first `FO' (the `F' in that `FO' may or may not be the first `F'). After another O, the cursor moves after the first `FOO' after the place where you started the search. At each step, the buffer text that matches the search string is highlighted, if the terminal can do that; the current search string is always displayed in the echo area.
If you make a mistake in typing the search string, you can cancel characters with DEL. Each DEL cancels the last character of search string. This does not happen until Emacs is ready to read another input character; first it must either find, or fail to find, the character you want to erase. If you do not want to wait for this to happen, use C-g as described below.
When you are satisfied with the place you have reached, you can type RET, which stops searching, leaving the cursor where the search brought it. Also, any command not specially meaningful in searches stops the searching and is then executed. Thus, typing C-a would exit the search and then move to the beginning of the line. RET is necessary only if the next command you want to type is a printing character, DEL, RET, or another character that is special within searches (C-q, C-w, C-r, C-s, C-y, M-y, M-r, M-s, and some other meta-characters).
Sometimes you search for `FOO' and find one, but not the one you expected to find. There was a second `FOO' that you forgot about, before the one you were aiming for. In this event, type another C-s to move to the next occurrence of the search string. You can repeat this any number of times. If you overshoot, you can cancel some C-s characters with DEL.
After you exit a search, you can search for the same string again by typing just C-s C-s: the first C-s is the key that invokes incremental search, and the second C-s means "search again."
To reuse earlier search strings, use the search ring. The commands M-p and M-n move through the ring to pick a search string to reuse. These commands leave the selected search ring element in the minibuffer, where you can edit it. Type C-s or C-r to terminate editing the string and search for it.
If your string is not found at all, the echo area says `Failing I-Search'. The cursor is after the place where Emacs found as much of your string as it could. Thus, if you search for `FOOT', and there is no `FOOT', you might see the cursor after the `FOO' in `FOOL'. At this point there are several things you can do. If your string was mistyped, you can rub some of it out and correct it. If you like the place you have found, you can type RET or some other Emacs command to remain there. Or you can type C-g, which removes from the search string the characters that could not be found (the `T' in `FOOT'), leaving those that were found (the `FOO' in `FOOT'). A second C-g at that point cancels the search entirely, returning point to where it was when the search started.
An upper-case letter in the search string makes the search case-sensitive. If you delete the upper-case character from the search string, it ceases to have this effect. See section K.6 Searching and Case.
To search for a newline, type C-j. To search for another control character, such as control-S or carriage return, you must quote it by typing C-q first. This function of C-q is analogous to its use for insertion (see section D.1 Inserting Text): it causes the following character to be treated the way any "ordinary" character is treated in the same context. You can also specify a character by its octal code: enter C-q followed by a sequence of octal digits.
To search for non-ASCII characters, you must use an input method (see section Q.4 Input Methods). If an input method is enabled in the current buffer when you start the search, you can use it while you type the search string also. Emacs indicates that by including the input method mnemonic in its prompt, like this:
where im is the mnemonic of the active input method. You can
toggle (enable or disable) the input method while you type the search
string with C-\ (
If a search is failing and you ask to repeat it by typing another C-s, it starts again from the beginning of the buffer. Repeating a failing reverse search with C-r starts again from the end. This is called wrapping around, and `Wrapped' appears in the search prompt once this has happened. If you keep on going past the original starting point of the search, it changes to `Overwrapped', which means that you are revisiting matches that you have already seen.
The C-g "quit" character does special things during searches; just what it does depends on the status of the search. If the search has found what you specified and is waiting for input, C-g cancels the entire search. The cursor moves back to where you started the search. If C-g is typed when there are characters in the search string that have not been found--because Emacs is still searching for them, or because it has failed to find them--then the search string characters which have not been found are discarded from the search string. With them gone, the search is now successful and waiting for more input, so a second C-g will cancel the entire search.
You can change to searching backwards with C-r. If a search fails because the place you started was too late in the file, you should do this. Repeated C-r keeps looking for more occurrences backwards. A C-s starts going forwards again. C-r in a search can be canceled with DEL.
If you know initially that you want to search backwards, you can use
C-r instead of C-s to start the search, because C-r as
a key runs a command (
The characters C-y and C-w can be used in incremental search to grab text from the buffer into the search string. This makes it convenient to search for another occurrence of text at point. C-w copies the word after point as part of the search string, advancing point over that word. Another C-s to repeat the search will then search for a string including that word. C-y is similar to C-w but copies all the rest of the current line into the search string. Both C-y and C-w convert the text they copy to lower case if the search is currently not case-sensitive; this is so the search remains case-insensitive.
The character M-y copies text from the kill ring into the search string. It uses the same text that C-y as a command would yank. Mouse-2 in the echo area does the same. See section H.8 Yanking.
When you exit the incremental search, it sets the mark to where point was, before the search. That is convenient for moving back there. In Transient Mark mode, incremental search sets the mark without activating it, and does so only if the mark is not already active.
When you pause for a little while during incremental search, it
highlights all other possible matches for the search string. This
makes it easier to anticipate where you can get to by typing C-s
or C-r to repeat the search. The short delay before highlighting
other matches helps indicate which match is the current one.
If you don't like this feature, you can turn it off by setting
To customize the special characters that incremental search understands,
alter their bindings in the keymap
K.1.1 Slow Terminal Incremental Search
Incremental search on a slow terminal uses a modified style of display that is designed to take less time. Instead of redisplaying the buffer at each place the search gets to, it creates a new single-line window and uses that to display the line that the search has found. The single-line window comes into play as soon as point moves outside of the text that is already on the screen.
When you terminate the search, the single-line window is removed. Emacs then redisplays the window in which the search was done, to show its new position of point.
The slow terminal style of display is used when the terminal baud rate is
less than or equal to the value of the variable
K.2 Nonincremental Search
Emacs also has conventional nonincremental search commands, which require you to type the entire search string before searching begins.
To do a nonincremental search, first type C-s RET. This enters the minibuffer to read the search string; terminate the string with RET, and then the search takes place. If the string is not found, the search command signals an error.
When you type C-s RET, the C-s invokes incremental
search as usual. That command is specially programmed to invoke
Forward and backward nonincremental searches are implemented by the
K.3 Word Search
Word search searches for a sequence of words without regard to how the words are separated. More precisely, you type a string of many words, using single spaces to separate them, and the string can be found even if there are multiple spaces, newlines, or other punctuation characters between these words.
Word search is useful for editing a printed document made with a text formatter. If you edit while looking at the printed, formatted version, you can't tell where the line breaks are in the source file. With word search, you can search without having to know them.
Word search is a special case of nonincremental search and is invoked with C-s RET C-w. This is followed by the search string, which must always be terminated with RET. Being nonincremental, this search does not start until the argument is terminated. It works by constructing a regular expression and searching for that; see K.4 Regular Expression Search.
Use C-r RET C-w to do backward word search.
Forward and backward word searches are implemented by the commands
K.4 Regular Expression Search
A regular expression (regexp, for short) is a pattern that denotes a class of alternative strings to match, possibly infinitely many. GNU Emacs provides both incremental and nonincremental ways to search for a match for a regexp.
Incremental search for a regexp is done by typing C-M-s
All of the control characters that do special things within an ordinary incremental search have the same function in incremental regexp search. Typing C-s or C-r immediately after starting the search retrieves the last incremental search regexp used; that is to say, incremental regexp and non-regexp searches have independent defaults. They also have separate search rings that you can access with M-p and M-n.
If you type SPC in incremental regexp search, it matches any sequence of whitespace characters, including newlines. If you want to match just a space, type C-q SPC.
Note that adding characters to the regexp in an incremental regexp search can make the cursor move back and start again. For example, if you have searched for `foo' and you add `\|bar', the cursor backs up in case the first `bar' precedes the first `foo'.
Nonincremental search for a regexp is done by the functions
If you use the incremental regexp search commands with a prefix
argument, they perform ordinary string search, like
K.5 Syntax of Regular Expressions
Regular expressions have a syntax in which a few characters are special constructs and the rest are ordinary. An ordinary character is a simple regular expression which matches that same character and nothing else. The special characters are `$', `^', `.', `*', `+', `?', `[', `]' and `\'. Any other character appearing in a regular expression is ordinary, unless a `\' precedes it. (When you use regular expressions in a Lisp program, each `\' must be doubled, see the example near the end of this section.)
For example, `f' is not a special character, so it is ordinary, and therefore `f' is a regular expression that matches the string `f' and no other string. (It does not match the string `ff'.) Likewise, `o' is a regular expression that matches only `o'. (When case distinctions are being ignored, these regexps also match `F' and `O', but we consider this a generalization of "the same string," rather than an exception.)
Any two regular expressions a and b can be concatenated. The result is a regular expression which matches a string if a matches some amount of the beginning of that string and b matches the rest of the string.
As a simple example, we can concatenate the regular expressions `f' and `o' to get the regular expression `fo', which matches only the string `fo'. Still trivial. To do something nontrivial, you need to use one of the special characters. Here is a list of them.
Note: for historical compatibility, special characters are treated as ordinary ones if they are in contexts where their special meanings make no sense. For example, `*foo' treats `*' as ordinary since there is no preceding expression on which the `*' can act. It is poor practice to depend on this behavior; it is better to quote the special character anyway, regardless of where it appears.
For the most part, `\' followed by any character matches only that character. However, there are several exceptions: two-character sequences starting with `\' that have special meanings. The second character in the sequence is always an ordinary character when used on its own. Here is a table of `\' constructs.
The constructs that pertain to words and syntax are controlled by the setting of the syntax table (see section AD.6 The Syntax Table).
Here is a complicated regexp, stored in
This contains four parts in succession: a character set matching period, `?', or `!'; a character set matching close-brackets, quotes, or parentheses, repeated zero or more times; a set of alternatives within backslash-parentheses that matches either end-of-line, a space at the end of a line, a tab, or two spaces; and a character set matching whitespace characters, repeated any number of times.
To enter the same regexp interactively, you would type TAB to enter a tab, and C-j to enter a newline. (When typed interactively, C-j should be preceded by a C-q, to prevent Emacs from running the command bound to a newline.) You would also type single backslashes as themselves, instead of doubling them for Lisp syntax.
K.6 Searching and Case
Incremental searches in Emacs normally ignore the case of the text they are searching through, if you specify the text in lower case. Thus, if you specify searching for `foo', then `Foo' and `foo' are also considered a match. Regexps, and in particular character sets, are included: `[ab]' would match `a' or `A' or `b' or `B'.
An upper-case letter anywhere in the incremental search string makes the search case-sensitive. Thus, searching for `Foo' does not find `foo' or `FOO'. This applies to regular expression search as well as to string search. The effect ceases if you delete the upper-case letter from the search string.
Typing M-c within an incremental search toggles the case sensitivity of that search. The effect does not extend beyond the current incremental search to the next one, but it does override the effect of including an upper-case letter in the current search.
If you set the variable
K.7 Replacement Commands
Global search-and-replace operations are not needed often in Emacs, but they are available. In addition to the simple M-x replace-string command which is like that found in most editors, there is a M-x query-replace command which finds each occurrence of the pattern and asks you whether to replace it.
The replace commands normally operate on the text from point to the
end of the buffer; however, in Transient Mark mode, when the mark is
active, they operate on the region. The replace commands all replace
one string (or regexp) with one replacement string. It is possible to
perform several replacements in parallel using the command
K.7.1 Unconditional Replacement
To replace every instance of `foo' after point with `bar', use the command M-x replace-string with the two arguments `foo' and `bar'. Replacement happens only in the text after point, so if you want to cover the whole buffer you must go to the beginning first. All occurrences up to the end of the buffer are replaced; to limit replacement to part of the buffer, narrow to that part of the buffer before doing the replacement (see section AC.22 Narrowing). In Transient Mark mode, when the region is active, replacement is limited to the region (see section H.2 Transient Mark Mode).
A numeric argument restricts replacement to matches that are surrounded by word boundaries. The argument's value doesn't matter.
K.7.2 Regexp Replacement
The M-x replace-string command replaces exact matches for a single string. The similar command M-x replace-regexp replaces any match for a specified pattern.
replaces (for example) `cadr' with `cadr-safe' and `cddr' with `cddr-safe'.
performs the inverse transformation.
K.7.3 Replace Commands and Case
If the first argument of a replace command is all lower case, the
command ignores case while searching for occurrences to
replaces a lower case `foo' with a lower case `bar', an
all-caps `FOO' with `BAR', and a capitalized `Foo' with
`Bar'. (These three alternatives--lower case, all caps, and
capitalized, are the only ones that
If upper-case letters are used in the replacement string, they remain
upper case every time that text is inserted. If upper-case letters are
used in the first argument, the second argument is always substituted
exactly as given, with no case conversion. Likewise, if either
K.7.4 Query Replace
If you want to change only some of the occurrences of `foo' to
`bar', not all of them, then you cannot use an ordinary
The characters you can type when you are shown a match for the string or regexp are:
Some other characters are aliases for the ones listed above: y, n and q are equivalent to SPC, DEL and RET.
Aside from this, any other character exits the
To restart a
See also AB.9 Transforming File Names in Dired, for Dired commands to rename, copy, or link files by replacing regexp matches in file names.
K.8 Other Search-and-Loop Commands
Here are some other commands that find matches for a regular
expression. They all ignore case in matching, if the pattern contains
no upper-case letters and
You can also search multiple files under control of a tags table
(see section W.2.6 Searching and Replacing with Tags Tables) or through Dired A command
(see section AB.7 Operating on Files), or ask the
This document was generated on April 2, 2002 using texi2html
Services: Online Marketing Agency
|Electric Speed: Online Marketing Agencies|